United Republic of Tanzania

 General Facts

Population: 49.25 million (2013) World Bank

Official Languages: Swahili, English

Tanzania Government: www.tanzania.got.tz

Capitals Dodoma

Tanzaniaofficially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south; and the Indian Ocean to the east. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania. The United Nations estimated Tanzania’s 2016 population at 55.57 million. The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president’s office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located. Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country’s largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a one party dominant statewith the socialist-progressive Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power. Some prehistoric population migrations into Tanzania include Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia; Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of Lake Turkana about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago; and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan-Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.:page 18 These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago. European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa’s Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent’s deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Kalambowater falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa and are located near the south-eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on the border with Zambia. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar’s largest marine protected area. Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. The country does not have a de jure official language, although the national language is Swahili. Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.

Nine Provinces :Zanzibar , South of Dar, Mafia island ,Pemba Island, Sadaani National Park

Crime Threats 

Large population centers, such as Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Mwanza and Stone Town, face challenges from crime that require mitigation strategies commensurate with developing nations. For the past several years, Dar es Salaam has received a Critical crime threat rating from the U.S. State Department.  The vast majority of incidents are non-violent, property crime and non-violent street crime. Street
crime is prevalent in urban areas and takes place throughout Dar es Salaam at all times of day or night. Most incidents are crimes of opportunity targeting people carrying bags, backpacks, attaches, computer cases, cameras, or pocketbooks. Most of these snatch-and-grab crimes are committed by unarmed assailants. Assailants tend to operate in small groups where only one person may overtly take part in a mugging. If the victim resists, additional members may appear with a knife, machete — or on rare occasions — with a firearm. But, non-confrontational theft remains the most significant and persistent concern. Such theft continues to plague both host country nationals and expatriates despite increased messages of security awareness from security elements within the community (both governmental and private sector). Roadways are extremely poor. Paved national highways are in fair to good condition with a few exceptions country-wide. Most other roads in the interior are in poor condition. When traveling long distances, travelers should anticipate mechanical problems and be prepared to perform maintenance in the event of an emergency. Travelers should have the proper tools and training to change tires and deal with minor repairs. Travelers are much more likely to be injured in a traffic accident than
by crime or political violence. Emergency rescue and quality medical care are not readily available, leading to a high traffic accident
mortality rate. Personnel should be particularly cautious while driving at night. Nonexistent or inadequate roadway lighting, gaping potholes, and inefficient traffic laws often lead to accidents, especially after dark. Traffic laws exist but are randomly enforced and generally not followed by the majority of drivers. Buses are often overloaded, poorly
maintained, and drivers are exhausted. Three-wheel taxi vehicles, locally referred to as “Bajaji,” and motorcycles are also poorly maintained and offer little protection to passengers.

Economy Tanzania’s

Economic freedom score is 57.5, making its economy the 109th freest in the 2015 Index. Its score has decreased by 0.3 point since last year due to declines in trade freedom and business freedom that outweigh improvements in half of the 10 economic freedoms, including freedom from corruption and monetary freedom. Tanzania is ranked 17th out of 46 countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa region, and its overall score is lower than the world average.

Productive economic

Growth in recent years has helped to promote prosperity, but widespread poverty still plagues an economy that lacks fundamental aspects of economic freedom. A greater commitment to structural and institutional reforms is needed to create an efficient entrepreneurial environment and open markets.

Healthcare

As of 2012, life expectancy at birth was 61 years. The under-five mortality rate in 2012 was 54 per 1,000 live births.The maternal mortality rate in 2013 was estimated at 410 per 100,000 live births. Prematurity and malaria were tied in 2010 as the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old.The other leading causes of death for these children were, in decreasing order, malaria, diarrhoea, HIV, and measle. Malaria in Tanzania causes death and disease and has a “huge economic impact”. There were approximately 11.5 million cases of clinical malaria in 2008. In 2007–08, malaria prevalence among children aged 6 months to 5 years was highest in the Kagera Region (41.1 percent) on the western shore of Lake Victoria and lowest in the Arusha Region (0.1 percent). According to the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010, 15 percent of Tanzanian women had undergone female genital mutilation and 72 percent of Tanzanian men had been circumcised. FGM is most common in the Manyara, Dodoma, Arusha, and Singida regions and nonexistent in Zanzibar. The prevalence of male circumcision was above 90 percent in the eastern (Dar es Salaam, Pwani, and Morogoro regions), northern (Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Arusha, and Manyara regions), and central areas (Dodoma and Singida regions) and below 50 percent only in the southern highlands zone (Mbeya, Iringa, and Rukwa regions). 2012 data showed that 53 percent of the population used improved drinking water sources (defined as a source that “by nature of its construction and design, is likely to protect the source from outside contamination, in particular from faecal matter”) and 12 percent used improved sanitation facilities (defined as facilities that “likely hygienically separates human excreta from human contact” but not including facilities shared with other households or open to public use).

HIV/Aids

The World Health Organization estimated in 2012 that the prevalence of HIV was 3.1 percent, although the Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011–12 found that, on average, 5.1 percent of those tested in the 15 to 49 age group were HIV-positive. Anti-retroviral treatment coverage for people living with HIV was 37 percent in 2013, compared to 19 percent in 2011.According to a 2013 report published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS that compares 2012 with 2001 data, AIDS deaths have decreased 33 percent, new HIV infections have decreased 36 percent, and new HIV infections among children have decreased 67 percent.

Transport

Most transport in Tanzania is by road, with road transport constituting over 75 percent of the country’s freight traffic and 80 percent of its passenger traffic. The 86,500 kilometres (53,700 mi) road system is in generally poor condition. Tanzania has two railway companies: TAZARA, which provides service between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi (in a copper-mining district in Zambia), and Tanzania Railways Limited, which connects Dar es Salaam with central and northern Tanzania. Rail travel in Tanzania often entails slow journeys with frequent cancellations or delays, and the railways have a deficient safety record.Tanzania has four international airports, along with over 100 small airports or landing strips. Airport infrastructure tends to be in poor condition. Airlines in Tanzania include Air Tanzania, Precision Air, Fastjet, Coastal Aviation, and ZanAir.

Tourism

Travel and tourism contributed 17.5 percent of Tanzania’s gross domestic product in 2016 and employed 11.0 percent of the country’s labour force (1,189,300 jobs) in 2013. Overall receipts rose from US $1.74 billion in 2004 to US $4.48 billion in 2013, and receipts from international tourists rose from US $1.255 billion in 2010 to US $2 billion in 2016. In 2016, 1,284,279 tourists arrived at Tanzania’s borders compared to 590,000 in 2005. The vast majority of tourists visit Zanzibar or a “northern circuit” of Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, and Mount Kilimanjaro. In 2013, the most visited national park was Serengeti (452,485 tourists), followed by Manyara (187,773) and Tarangire (165,949).

Wildlife and conservation

 A tower of giraffes at Arusha National Park. The giraffe is the national animal. Approximately 38 percent of Tanzania’s land area is set aside in protected areas for conservation. Tanzania has 16 national parks, plus a variety of game and forest reserves, including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In western Tanzania, Gombe Stream National Park is the site of Jane Goodall’s ongoing study of chimpanzee behaviour, which started in 1960. Tanzania is highly biodiverse and contains a wide variety of animal habitats.On Tanzania’s Serengeti plain, white-bearded wildebeest(Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi) and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Tanzania is home to about 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red Lists of countries.

Whether 

Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions. Tanzania has two major rainfall regimes: one is uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May). The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from Lake Victoria extending east to the coast. The bi-modal regime is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

Zanzibar

The legislative authority in Zanzibar over all non-union matters is vested in the House of Representatives (per the Tanzania constitution) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar constitution). The Legislative Council has two parts: the president of Zanzibar and the House of Representatives. The president is Zanzibar’s head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council, in which the executive authority of Zanzibar is invested. Zanzibar has two vice-presidents, with the first being from the main opposition party in the house. The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the House. The president and the members of the House of Representatives have five-year terms. The president selects ministers from members of the House of Representatives,:§ 42(2) with the ministers allocated according to the number of House seats won by political parties. The Revolutionary Council consists of the president, both vice-presidents, all ministers, the attorney general of Zanzibar, and other house members deemed fit by the president. The House of Representatives is composed of elected members, ten members appointed by the president, all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar, the attorney general, and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30 percent of the elected members. §§ 55(3), 64, 67(1) The House determines the number of its elected members:§ 120(2) with the Zanzibar Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency. :§ 120(1) In 2013, the House had 81 members: fifty elected members, five regional commissioners, the attorney general, ten members appointed by the president, and fifteen appointed female members.

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